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Ebook درس های فلسفه اخلاق by Immanuel Kant read! Book Title: درس های فلسفه اخلاق
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The author of the book: Immanuel Kant
Edition: نقش و نگار
Date of issue: 2009
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Language: English
Format files: PDF
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Vorlesung Kants über Ethik = Lectures on Ethics, Immanuel Kant
This volume contains four versions of the lecture notes taken by Kant's students of his university courses in ethics given regularly over a period of some thirty years. The notes are very complete and expound not only Kant's views on ethics but many of his opinions on life and human nature.
تاریخ نخستین خوانش: روز بیستم ماه آوریل سال 2011 میلادی
عنوان: درسهای فلسفه ی اخلاق؛ نویسنده: امانوئل کانت؛ مترجم: منوچهر صانعی دره بیدی؛ تهران، نقش و نگار، 1384؛ در 344 ص؛ شابک: 9646235069؛ چاپ دیگر: 1387؛ موضوع: اخلاق - فلسفه از نویسندگان آلمانی سده 19 م
کانت باور داشت، که اراده ی خیر، و حسن نیت، تنها مفهوم ذاتاً خوب است، و معنی حسن نیت، انجام وظیفه است، تنها برهان موجه، برای ادای وظیفه، همان وظیفه بودن آن است، و هیچ برهان دیگری نباید داشته باشد، و اگر کسی، از ترس مجازات، یا به امید پاداش، ادای وظیفه کند، تکلیف خود را انجام نداده‌ است. کانت در این زمینه گفته‌ است: «من خواب می‌دیدم، و می‌پنداشتم که زندگی تمتع است، چون بیدار شدم، دیدم وظیفه است.». تکلیف، عملی است، که شخص برای متابعت از قاعده ی کلی، انجام می‌دهد. به عبارتی دیگر: تکلیف، احترام به قانون است. قاعده ی اخلاقی اصلی کانت، این است که شخص، باید همواره چنان عمل کند، که گویی شیوه ی عمل او، قانون فراگیر طبیعت، خواهد شد، و همواره و همه‌ وقت، قانون کلی خواهد بود. قاعده ی اساسی دیگر، در فلسفه ی کانت، بیان می‌کند که: انسان، غایت فی نفسه است، و باید با هر انسانی، خواه خود، و خواه دیگران، به عنوان غایت رفتار کرد، نه وسیله ای برای رسیدن به هدف. ا. شربیانی


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Ebook درس های فلسفه اخلاق read Online! Immanuel Kant was an 18th-century philosopher from Königsberg, Prussia (now Kaliningrad, Russia). He's regarded as one of the most influential thinkers of modern Europe & of the late Enlightenment. His most important work is The Critique of Pure Reason, an investigation of reason itself. It encompasses an attack on traditional metaphysics & epistemology, & highlights his own contribution to these areas. Other main works of his maturity are The Critique of Practical Reason, which is about ethics, & The Critique of Judgment, about esthetics & teleology.

Pursuing metaphysics involves asking questions about the ultimate nature of reality. Kant suggested that metaphysics can be reformed thru epistemology. He suggested that by understanding the sources & limits of human knowledge we can ask fruitful metaphysical questions. He asked if an object can be known to have certain properties prior to the experience of that object. He concluded that all objects that the mind can think about must conform to its manner of thought. Therefore if the mind can think only in terms of causality–which he concluded that it does–then we can know prior to experiencing them that all objects we experience must either be a cause or an effect. However, it follows from this that it's possible that there are objects of such a nature that the mind cannot think of them, & so the principle of causality, for instance, cannot be applied outside experience: hence we cannot know, for example, whether the world always existed or if it had a cause. So the grand questions of speculative metaphysics are off limits, but the sciences are firmly grounded in laws of the mind. Kant believed himself to be creating a compromise between the empiricists & the rationalists. The empiricists believed that knowledge is acquired thru experience alone, but the rationalists maintained that such knowledge is open to Cartesian doubt and that reason alone provides us with knowledge. Kant argues, however, that using reason without applying it to experience will only lead to illusions, while experience will be purely subjective without first being subsumed under pure reason. Kant’s thought was very influential in Germany during his lifetime, moving philosophy beyond the debate between the rationalists & empiricists. The philosophers Fichte, Schelling, Hegel and Schopenhauer saw themselves as correcting and expanding Kant's system, thus bringing about various forms of German Idealism. Kant continues to be a major influence on philosophy to this day, influencing both Analytic and Continental philosophy.


Reviews of the درس های فلسفه اخلاق


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